This report is the continuation of ERC’s determination to investigate Australia’s most recent deportations to Afghanistan by providing an overview of Afghanistan’s current security, political, and socio-economic situation, the drivers and trends of migration, and the returnees’ experience, compiled from both primary and secondary sources. The sources selected for preparing this report include scholarly analysis, expert commentary, government and international organisations’ documents, officials’ statements, and newspaper reports as well as conducting interviews with experts and practitioners working at national and international development agencies in Afghanistan. In addition to relying on a wide range of primary and secondary sources, a number of deported Afghans from Australia, Europe and other countries have been interviewed in the context of returnees’ experience in order to broaden the focus of the report.
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Resistance as a response to injustice and social inequities is not new. It is part of the experience of many religious and secular groups. It has received a boost as people protest top-down abuse of power: women’s rights and domestic violence; rights of asylum seekers, Indigenous people, climate justice, gay rights and racism. Social media has put resistance on the radar. It occurs within a particular social context and requires navigating various social, political, and economic relationships.